Download 2008 Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Home Study Program-Brand New Volume by Kaplan PDF

Download 2008 Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Home Study Program-Brand New Volume by Kaplan PDF

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Read or Download 2008 Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Home Study Program-Brand New Volume IV: Organ Systems Book 2 PDF

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Additional info for 2008 Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Home Study Program-Brand New Volume IV: Organ Systems Book 2

Sample text

Considered thelargest bodyorgan, theintegument comprises approximately 16o/o oftotalbodyweight. lt isa highly specialized organ thatfunctions to protect thebodyfrominjury, desiccation, andinfection. lt alsoparticipates in sensory reception, excretion, thermoregulation, andmaintenance ofwater balance. It is a stratifiedsquamousorthokeratinized epitheliallayerof ectoderrnalorigin. A. Layersof the epiderrnisftom deepto superficialconsistof four strata. l. Stratum basale (stratum germinatirum) is a proliferative basallayer of columnar-like cellsthat containthe fibrous protein keratin.

WAtt POSTERIOR ABDOMINAT The posterior abdominal wall is locatedbehind the posterior layer of the parietal peritoneum. A. Osteology. The bony structure of the posterior wall includes many of the samefeaturesas the anterior wall of the abdomen and bony landmarks from the thorax and the inferior extremity. 1. Five lumbar vertebrae(L1 through L5) 2. Iliac crest 3. Iliac fossa 4. Twelfth pair of ribs 5. Lessertrochanter of femur B. Muscles Note 1. The quadratus lumborum extends upward from the iliac crest to the inferior border of the 12th rib.

2. Sternum a. The manubrium articulates with the clavicle and the first rib. It meets the bodv of the sternum at the sternal angle, an important clinical landmark. Thesecond pairof costal cartilages attaches here, and theribsarecounted from thispoint. b. The body articulates directly with ribs 2-7; it articulates inferiorly with the xiphoid processat the xiphisternal junction. Bifurcation ofthetrachea formstheprimary bronchi. c. The xiphoid processis cartilaginousat birth and usually ossifiesand unites with the body of the sternum around age40.

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