By Walter Leuthold
This ebook has been written as a rule close by of untamed African ungulates, on the study heart in Tsavo East nationwide Park, V oi, Kenya. whereas this had many beneficial properties, there have been additionally a couple of drawbacks. the most this kind of is the truth that Voi isn't precisely on the hub of clinical task, no matter if we limit ourselves to African ungulates. therefore, while I had felt first and foremost that i used to be sufficiently acquainted with ethological paintings on those animals to put in writing an invaluable assessment, it quickly turned woefully glaring that this assumption was once misguided. over the past few years stories on African ungulates have seasoned liferated and effects are being released in journals just about all over the area. My situation in East Africa used to be occasionally below perfect with recognize to entry to the latest literature, and that i depended to a substantial volume at the goodwill of co-workers in giving or lending me suitable papers. i'm satisfied to file that I bought loads of help and cooperation during this appreciate. however, i'll have over appeared a few very important papers inadvertently; their authors are usually not consider slighted by means of such omissions, which in basic terms replicate availability of literature to me. Readers can also observe a substantial geographical bias in desire of East Africa, on the fee of alternative African areas, fairly South Africa.
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Additional info for African Ungulates: A Comparative Review of Their Ethology and Behavioral Ecology
In another instance, a young buffalo reared in the company of black rhinoceros and elephant consumed a considerably higher proportion of browse than did wild buffalo in the same general area (though not in exactly the same habitat). This may have been a result of the buffalo calf imitating its social partners at an early age (Leuthold, 1972), the rhino and elephant being primarily browsers under prevailing circumstances. While imitation of the mother or other companions may be one mechanism that acts to determine a young animal's food habits, it cannot be the only one.
The male, who may have been standing next to her all along, now moves to the dung pile, sniffs intensively, sometimes showing "Flehmen" (see Fig. 37). He then starts several bouts of vigorous scraping, using both forefeet alternately (e. ), leaving clearly visible scratch marks. Between bouts of scraping, he sometimes turns about 180°. After several series of scraping, he urinates in a fairly low crouching posture, then crouches even lower (cf. Fig. 7) and defecates, again changing position occasionally.
Scraping with the hindfeet after defecation is a feature of the two species of rhinoceros, which leave clearly visible scrape-marks at their dung heaps. In various species, ground-scraping also occurs in other contexts, and its main function can be assumed to be expressive, particularly where it precedes defecation. If it follows afterward, it may also serve to impregnate the performer's feet with the scent of the dung (e. , black rhino: Goddard, 1967) or, alternatively, to mark the dung or defecation site with a secretion of the interdigital glands (oribi: Hediger, 1951).