By Hazel Carter
This can be the fourth in a chain of person guides on Zambian languages and grammar. The purpose of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which turned relatively in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian govt to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guide. This quantity offers a grammatical cartoon of Tonga, a Bantu language spoken in southern Zambia. it's the mom tongue of a few 800,000 humans. Chapters conceal humans and dialects, sound structures and orthography, morphology and syntax.
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Extra info for An outline of Chitonga grammar
Ns(y)e-'I' (Southem(n)si-),to-'you sg', ta-'slhe' Pasttenses: ns(y)iind-'l', too-'you sg',taa-'slhe'. Seealsothe Hortativeform page59. The RelativeObjectConcordtoo has variantformsasexplainedabove. TYPESOF VERB FORM Verb forms may consistof one word only, suchas twakátuma'wesent',or of morethanoneword, suchastúyáhituma 'we shallsend',thoughevenúese are sometimes written as oneword. The dialectsdiffer in someinstances:Southern Tongausea one-wordform for thefuture:niyóótuma'weshallsend'. The Tongaverb systemincludestwo pâsttenses,one for events on the day of speaking(Near or Hodiernal Past),and anotherfor eventsbefore today(Remoteor PrehodiemalPasQ: twatúma'wesent(today)'but twakánma'we sent(beforetoday)'.
BothClasses12and t3 canbe usedasdiminutiyes. òuálo, pl. móóto). areusuallyin Cl. ,hiboko,pl. nóboko). e q-k4-ambo on top on th€ ground outside onthehead for úe reason ht-mbo hi-n-si kú-n-ze kú-té ht-mu-nzi wcstward to the ground outside far away homewards mú-sule mú-n-si mú-cí-si mú-mú-twe mu-mu-hzt after oear io the country in úe head in the home/village 16 a-tala l8 Noun Formation Processes tNouns canbe formedby changeofclass: ímwámi'chie? (Class1), íbwámi' chieftainship'(Class14). Others can be formed frorn verbs, and by prefixation of 'formatives' to other 23 nouns;they mayalsoincludecompounding.
E. they are --r. Various authorshaveuseddífferenttermsfor úis, asshownin the paragraphheading. -muntu 's/heis a person,an African' m-bantu 'they arepeople' p-cìsani 'it is a cloth' Classla hasBga- with L toneexceptbeforesi-, 11gu-ciwena 'it's a crocodile' ngy-ní? ' 4gti-slnkondo 'he is an enemy' Class2a hasrybaa-z mbaaciwena 'they arecrocodiles' mbaá-ní? ' rybaá-slnlando 'úey areenemies' Class5 haspdi-, takingon thetoneofthe IV: 11di-bbwe 'it's a sÍone' Classes9 and l0 have4È, takingon thetoneofthe IV , pí-mpóngo 'it's a goat' 25 b) definiteor restricted This statesthat the objectis a particularmemberofthe categoryor species.