Download Anaesthesia and intensive care A-Z : an encyclopaedia of by S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith PDF

Download Anaesthesia and intensive care A-Z : an encyclopaedia of by S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith PDF

By S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith

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Additional info for Anaesthesia and intensive care A-Z : an encyclopaedia of principles and practice

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Anaesthesia is generally accepted as being a continuum in which increasing depth of anaesthesia results in loss of consciousness, recall, and somatic and autonomic reflexes.

The toxic dose is not well defined, as there is a wide variation in response related to tolerance in chronic abusers. Diagnosis is made on the history and clinical grounds, supported by qualitative laboratory analysis (plasma levels are unhelpful in guiding management). Patients should have continuous ECG and core temperature monitoring, and urine analysed for myoglobin. Treatment includes general supportive care as for poisoning and overdoses, and the use of chlorpromazine and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists (although β2receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle vessels may increase BP).

Amino acids are involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism; amino groups may be removed or transferred to other molecules (deamination and transamination respectively). Deamination results in the liberation of ammonia, which may be excreted as urea, or taken up by other amino acids to form amides. Eight dietary amino acids are essential for life in humans: valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and lysine. Arginine and histidine are required for normal growth.

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