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Additional resources for Atari Roots. A Guide to Atari Assembly Language
This was an important chapter because it's a prerequisite to Chapter 3, which in turn is a prerequisite to Chapter 4, where you'll get a chance to actually start writing some assembly language programs. something to Tide You Over Meanwhile, here's another BASIC program that might help you feel that you're getting through to your Atari. It uses an infinite loop to cycle through all of the colors and hues that your computer can generate, loading each of them in turn into the memory register that controls the border area of your video screen.
In case you can't get your hands on a programmer's calculator right away, here's an Atari BASIC program that will convert decimal numbers to hexadecimal numbers and vice versa. Another program is available on page H-18 of the BASIC Reference Manual that comes with the Atari BASIC cartridge. Dec-Hex and Hex-Dec Conversion program 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 REM REM HEX TO DEC CONVERSION PROGRAM REM REM THE FAST WAY REM DON'T USE MATH REM DIM H$(40),A$[40) REM 38 90 PRINT 100 PRINT 110 PRINT 120 PRINT "HEX TO DECIMAL CONVERSION" 130 PRINT 140 PRINT "H) HEX TO DEC" 150 PRINT "D) DEC TO HEX" 160 PRINT 1801NPUT A$ 190 IF A$="H" THEN 220 200 IF A$="D" THEN 400 210GOT0100 220 REM 230 REM CONVERT HEX TO DECIMAL 240 REM 250 PRINT "ENTER HEX NUMBER"; 260 INPUT H$ 270 REM 2800=0 290 S=1 :REM POSITIONAL MULTIPLIER 295 REM GO THROUGH THE STRING 300 FOR L=LEN[H$) TO 1 STEP-1 310 A$=H$[L,L) 320 REM 330 REM CONVERT "0"-"F' TO 0-15 340 N=ASC[A$)-48:IF N>9 THEN N=N-7 345 IF N<0 OR N>15 THEN 90 350D=D+N*S 360 S=S*16 370 NEXT L 380 PRINT "HEX ";H$;" = DEC ";0 390 GOTO 90 400 REM 410 REM CONVERT DECIMAL TO HEX 420 REM 430 PRINT "ENTER DECIMAL TO CONVERT' 440 INPUT 0 450 REM 460 REM FIRST FIND THE HIGHEST DIGIT 470 REM 480 S=16 39 490 X=2 500 IF S
In those lines a certain memory register in your computer (called FREQ in this program) is stuffed with a value that equates to a musical note. Each time that value changes, the note being played changes accordingly. This is a very simple program that doesn't even begin to explore the complex sound capabilities of Atari computers. Still, the ways in which it can be expanded are limited only by the user's own imagination. By making the program a little more complicated, you could add the capability of reproducing sharps and flats (with the control key, for example), and you could also add more octaves (for instance with the shift key, the numbers keys, or shift/control key combinations).