By Mathew L. Lynch, Patrick T. Spicer
With the advance of various analytical chemistry options, the invention of wealthy and diverse homes bearing on bicontinuous liquid crystal buildings has yielded necessary functions in medication, purchaser items, fabrics technological know-how, and biotechnology. offering contributions from 24 specialists world wide, Bicontinuous Liquid Crystals offers a accomplished evaluate of those buildings with a pragmatic method of utilising them in production and laboratory procedures. This ebook considers the cubic, mesh, ribbon, and sponge equilibrium levels of bicontinuous buildings. It starts with a old standpoint and a theoretical platform for research, by means of a close dialogue of actual chemistry, homes, and structural features of the several stages. The textual content interrelates the main necessary analytical equipment for the characterization of the habit and balance of liquid crystalline stages in keeping with constitution, geometry, composition-dependent alterations, temperature, dispersion, and different components. those innovations comprise differential geometry, thermodynamics, neighborhood and worldwide packing, and the examine of conformational entropy. The publication additionally highlights instruments for mathematically visualizing bicontinuous platforms. this gives an outstanding starting place for the authors' exam of the most recent experiences and purposes, corresponding to managed free up, fabrics improvement, fabrication, processing, polymerization, protein crystallization, membrane fusion, and remedy of human dermis. Bicontinuous Liquid Crystals represents present tendencies and cutting edge rules within the learn of bicontinuous liquid crystals. Divided into 3 sections, it presents a whole assessment of theoretical and modeling points, actual chemistry and characterization, and purposes during this lively box of analysis.
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Extra resources for Bicontinuous Liquid Crystals (Surfactant Science)
Such Cubosomes have been well characterized by cryo–transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction (20,21) and also by NMR (22). Cell membranes have been shown to sometimes form Cubosomes (18), and Landh has reported a wide range of examples (23). It seems that such cubic membrane structures often represent a vegetative state, without (or with reduced) metabolic activity (24). In order to describe particles of finite periodicity, such as Cubosomes, the so-called exponential scale mathematics discovered by Sten Andersson, cf.
5. A “hexagon-rod” model of the ribbon cross section is suggested, in which the ribbon structure is controlled by the competition between the requirement for a constant water layer thickness 22 Holmes and Leaver around each ribbon, the surface area per molecule, and the minimization of total surface area. Comparisons between experimental results and a Poisson–Boltzman cell model were made  using previously published phase diagrams. Both the model and experimental results showed that the axial ratio of the ribbon aggregates increased as temperature, surfactant concentration, or average surfactant charge was decreased.
The nodal surface of this wave function is: F(100) (cos2πx + cos2πy + cos2πz) = 0 The volume on each side of this PNS within the unit cell will be identical. It is also evident that this wave function will exhibit the smallest possible surface area as the index (100) represents the longest wavelength of the elements contributing to the electron density. It is therefore not surprising that this PNS will be very close to the minimal surface with the same symmetry, which is the P-surface. The D-surface is obtained from the (111)-structure factor and the G-surface from the structure factor with index (110), when the 8 Larsson actual symmetry is taken into account (directly available from The International Tables of Crystallography).