Download Biosensors and molecular technologies for cancer diagnostics by Keith E. Herold, Avraham Rasooly PDF

Download Biosensors and molecular technologies for cancer diagnostics by Keith E. Herold, Avraham Rasooly PDF

By Keith E. Herold, Avraham Rasooly

Bridging the distance among learn and medical program, Biosensors and Molecular applied sciences for melanoma Diagnostics explores using biosensors as potent choices to the present normal equipment in melanoma prognosis and detection. It describes the main facets fascinated about detecting and diagnosing melanoma in addition to the fundamental parts of biosensors and their functions in detection and diagnostics. Read more...

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MammaPrint is a microarray-based prognostic breast cancer gene-expression profiling test of 70 genes developed using 78 patients [120]. This test provides information about the likelihood of tumor recurrence (metastases within 5 years) and enables to classify patients as high- or low-genomic risk (good or poor prognosis categories). A second validation also confirmed the prognostic capacity of the gene signature [121]. S. , tamoxifen). MammaPrint is designed to analyze only fresh or frozen tissues from stage I or stage II and lymph node–negative (in the United States) or three or fewer lymph nodes (in Europe).

This cell heterogeneity represents a challenge when molecular analysis is performed on prostate tissue, especially if pure populations of cells are required for the correct interpretation of the data. 2 Staging of the Disease Malignant diseases progress through clinical stages, which describe how much a cancer has spread in a patient. Tumor stage is the leading prognostic indicator of the disease. The probability of a cure is much higher with early stage disease. One of the most commonly used staging systems is the TNM classification [3].

The high frequency of activating mutations centered around the RAS–RAF axis suggests that this is the regulatory hotspot of the pathway [16]. Identification of such RAS mutations is important especially for targeted therapeutics. For example, the KRAS oncogene is constitutively activated by a small set of specific mutations which almost all occur in codons 12 and 13 of exon 2. The presence of somatic mutations in the KRAS gene is associated with poor prognosis and lack of response to anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal (CRC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients [17].

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