By W. Stegmüller
These volumes include all of my articles released among 1956 and 1975 that may be of curiosity to readers within the English-speaking international. the 1st 3 essays in Vol. 1 take care of ancient issues. In each one case I so far as attainable, meets con have tried a rational reconstruction which, transitority criteria of exactness. within the challenge of Universals Then and Now a few principles of W.V. Quine and N. Goodman are used to create a contemporary cartoon of the historical past of the talk on universals starting with Plato and finishing with Hao Wang's approach L. the second one article matters Kant's Philosophy of technology. via interpreting his place vis-a-vis I. Newton, Christian Wolff, and D. Hume, it's proven that for Kant the very concept of empirical wisdom used to be beset with a funda psychological logical hassle. In his metaphysics of expertise Kant provided an answer differing from all earlier in addition to next makes an attempt aimed toward the matter of creating a systematic concept. The final of the 3 historic papers makes use of a few recommendations of recent common sense to provide an actual account of Wittgenstein's so-called photograph concept of which means. E. Stenius' interpretation of this idea is taken as an intuitive start line whereas an intensional variation of Tarski's suggestion of a relational process furnishes a technical software. The suggestions of inodel global and of logical area, including these of homomorphism and isomorphism be tween version worlds and among logical areas, shape the conceptual foundation of the reconstruction.
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Additional resources for Collected Papers on Epistemology, Philosophy of Science and History of Philosophy: Volume I
This only goes to show once again that Nominalism, if correctly formulated, is indeed free from contradiction, but lacks the means to be able to say everything that we want to say. We meet in this century a nominalistic theory in our sense of the word in the philosophy of Franz Brentano. Abstract objects like classes, states of affairs, qualities, unrealized possibilities, etc. are explained away as fictions. Hence, in his view, even abstract Singular terms like 'redness', 'the class of all objects such that ..
In the first place it is not at all necessary that the components of a thing be spatio-temporally connected. , for according to our present scientific conception all of these objects are composed of elementary parts like atoms and molecules which, relative to their size, are quite distant from each other. Nothing should thus prevent us from admitting things consisting of 'bits' which are distributed at random over the spatiotemporal universe. So, for example, all the red things, the presently existing as well as those that have existed at one time or will exist at some future time, could be construed as real components of a single largest red thing in the spatio-temporal universe.
That to one and the same whole several non-identical classes can be correlated, whereas this whole cannot be identified with different concrete aggregates which are not identical with each other (cf. the example of the wall, which may be thought of as consisting of bricks, on the one hand, of molecules on the other). And this is also responsible for the failure of a nominalistic definition of 'ancestral' for an arbitrary two-place relation R. One may well apply the above nominalistic definiens of the ancestral concept to the case of any relation R, thereby obtaining: 'every concrete individual z that contains y as a part and which also contains as parts all those individuals standing in the relation R to parts of z, likewise has x as a part'.