Download Defending Neutrality: The Netherlands Prepares for War, by Wim Klinkert PDF

Download Defending Neutrality: The Netherlands Prepares for War, by Wim Klinkert PDF

By Wim Klinkert

The small impartial states of Europe have previously in basic terms marginally been integrated within the historiography of the 1st global battle. This quantity offers intensive with The Netherlands, and particularly its warfare arrangements. Being a small state with reference to the battlefield of the Western entrance, it can now not ascertain its neutrality will be repected by means of the warring states. How did the rustic organize itself militarily and the way did those arrangements range from the best way the warring states adjusted to the truth of recent, overall struggle? was once glossy, technological struggle even attainable for small states and if no longer, in what approach might it confirm its survival while the worst got here to worst? This quantity analyses technological innovation, intelligence and concepts at the societal and political effect of contemporary battle within the Netherlands ahead of, in the course of and after the good battle.

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Extra info for Defending Neutrality: The Netherlands Prepares for War, 1900–1925

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22 In 1907, finally, the major manoeuvres simulated a German attack on the east of the country. The attacker crossed the IJssel River and the final showdown took place in the wooded areas and the wastelands of the Veluwe. This time, too, there was praise for the infantry, criticism of the artillery and now also of the cavalry. This was the first time that machine guns were used, in a way which reminded the attaché of the German army. 23 In 1908 a comprehensive analysis of the Dutch defence system was published.

36 chapter one if it had no fortress, the Netherlands could close off the Scheldt with mines and torpedoes anyway. In September 1911 the French ambassador in Berlin, Jules Cambon (1845– 1935), ordered the French consuls in western Germany to see whether there were any troop build-ups on the Dutch border. There were not, which was corroborated by the British consul in Emden. 14 What the brief but intense episode around the Dutch coastal defences, and those of Flushing in particular, had shown, was that organization of the Dutch defence had become an international issue more than ever before.

There was no Dutch military attaché in Paris, but French army exercises excited great interest from the side of the Dutch. Of all visits of Dutch officers to exercises abroad, those to France were the most frequent. 16 In 1887 the French envoy in The Hague, Louis Désiré Legrand (1842– 1910)17 reported that the Dutch Ministers of War and Foreign Affairs had told him that no fortresses would be built along the Meuse river, as the German army, should it attack France, would not spread out over such a broad front.

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