Download Doing Optimality Theory: Applying Theory to Data by John J. McCarthy PDF

Download Doing Optimality Theory: Applying Theory to Data by John J. McCarthy PDF

By John J. McCarthy

Content material:
Chapter 1 An creation to Optimality concept (pages 1–29):
Chapter 2 the way to build an research (pages 30–136):
Chapter three how you can Write Up an research (pages 137–165):
Chapter four constructing New Constraints (pages 166–234):
Chapter five Language Typology and Universals (pages 235–259):
Chapter 6 a few present examine Questions (pages 260–278):

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Additional info for Doing Optimality Theory: Applying Theory to Data

Example text

Perhaps the hardest thing is deciding which constraints are going to be important in the analysis. At this early stage, the decisions are tentative and subject to later revision as the details of the analysis emerge, but one must start somewhere. Where? When the data involve phonological alternations, start with the faithfulness constraints. They are the best place to start because faithfulness constraints are more limited in variety and better understood than markedness constraints. (This isn’t to say that the theory of faithfulness constraints is fully settled, since it’s not.

1) Basic faithfulness constraints (McCarthy and Prince 1995, 1999) a. Max prohibits deletion. b. Dep prohibits epenthesis. c. Ident(F) is a family of constraints, one for each distinctive feature F, that prohibit changing feature values. When doing an analysis, you can use your descriptive generalization to deduce which basic faithfulness constraints are being violated. If voicing alternates, then Ident([voice]) is violated. 3 This will also tell you something about the ranking. Any faithfulness constraint that is violated must be dominated by at least one markedness constraint.

Perhaps the hardest thing is deciding which constraints are going to be important in the analysis. At this early stage, the decisions are tentative and subject to later revision as the details of the analysis emerge, but one must start somewhere. Where? When the data involve phonological alternations, start with the faithfulness constraints. They are the best place to start because faithfulness constraints are more limited in variety and better understood than markedness constraints. (This isn’t to say that the theory of faithfulness constraints is fully settled, since it’s not.

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