By A. A. M. Sayigh
The NORTHSUN ninety convention supplied a discussion board for scientists from excessive range international locations to debate their adventure of solar power. The publication is split into components, half One bargains with strength conservation and administration in structures and sunlight and coffee strength structure. half covers all points of renewable strength; fabrics technological know-how and photovoltaic conversion, climate facts, heating and cooling of constructions, sizzling water structures, wave power, geothermal power, power garage, state programmes and different similar themes. In northern latitudes strength rate reductions in constructions of as much as 50% should be completed. NORTHSUN ninety inspired the attainment of this aim, selling using solar power in heating and collective paintings on sun tasks of direct gain to the zone.
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1 l2oo t£o o looo i — 2400 Fig . 5 Typica l temperatur e record s in comparativ e tests . DISCUSSIO N O F RESULT S Eve n thoug h mos t o f th e testin g wa s don e a t a tim e o f yea r whe n th e su n wa s lowe r an d therefor e roof-transmitte d sola r radiatio n wa s les s o f a proble m a s regard s overheatin g an d discomfort , th e result s ar e encouraging . Th e unshade d (n o reflectiv e blind ) syste m reduce s temperatur e swing s b y abou t 2 0 % . Th e additio n o f fixe d reflectiv e shade s improve s thi s figur e t o abou t 3 0 % whil e slightl y mor e sophisticate d pum p contro l raise s it t o abou t 40% .
Th e soli d wal l an d concret floo r constructio n provide d numerou s col d bridges , whic h wer e cure d wher practicabl e b y returnin g th e interna l dry-linin g b y 600m m t o walls , an d t o th undersid e o f floo r slabs . Th e ground-sla b wa s insulate d throughou t bu restriction s o n thicknes s t o maintai n door-height s reduce d th e effectivenes of thi s measure . s d d ; . r f y e e e t s Windows . A s th e existin g window s wer e soun d an d fi t fo r a furthe r 3 0 year life , th e mos t economi c improvemen t wa s b y modificatio n rathe r tha n replacement Alternative s included : retainin g single-glaze d window s o n th e South-Wes t sid wit h draught-strippin g an d improve d night-tim e insulation ; double-glazin g existin g windows ; o r secondar y glazing .
A majo r constrain t o n th e usefulnes s o f th e collecte d sola r hea t in a sunspac e is th e nee d t o provid e reasonabl e therma l comfor t fo r peopl e an d possibl y als o plants . Allowabl e uppe r comfor t limit s o n bot h ai r an d radian t temperature s ° : th e sunspac e creat e engineerin g 24 25 problem s In storag e an d transmissio n o f th e sola r heat . glaze d roof s is speciall y problematic . Th e intermitten t sola r gai n throug h EXISTING SOLUTION S Conventiona l strategie s fo r dealin g wit h o r utilisin g intermitten t input s o f sola r hea t whil e maintainin g reasonabl e therma l comfor t includ e : (i) (i i) (i i i) (i í ) Ventin g Shadin g Passiv e therma l storag e Hea t transfe r t o adjacen t building .