By Timothy M. Maus, Sonia Nhieu, Seth T. Herway
Covering either transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), this ebook fills the necessity of available details for the practitioner looking a simple point of familiarity with TEE and TTE within the perioperative administration of the surgical sufferer. This booklet is a realistic advisor on echocardiography written for non-cardiac anesthesiologists and demanding care physicians who desire to familiarize yourself with using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in addition to a source for anesthesiologists learning for the fundamental PTE exam. crucial Echocardiology additionally good points huge figures and greater than a hundred echocardiography videos.
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Additional resources for Essential Echocardiography: Transesophageal Echocardiography for Non-cardiac Anesthesiologists
Ultrasound is sound at frequencies above the audible range (>20,000 Hz), while medical ultrasound is in the mega-Hz (MHz) range, or millions of Hz (Fig. 3). Sound transmission depends upon the density of the medium, with higher density substances such as liquid transmitting sound more rapidly and efﬁciently than air. Ultrasound does not travel well through gas, so gas-ﬁlled spaces such as bronchi and gastric air result in “blackout” of the ultrasound image. Lower frequency sound tends to propagate farther than high frequency sound.
Lateral resolution is best at the focal point, but is quite poor in the far ﬁeld (distal to the focal point). Therefore, it is recommended to place the focal point at the level of the structure of interest. The longitudinal, or axial resolution depends on the pulse length, with shorter pulse length resulting in better resolution (Fig. 7). Pulse length can be decreased either by increasing the frequency of the probe (and thus decreasing the wavelength), or decreasing the cycles/pulse Eq. 1 and Eq.
The TG midpapillary SAX view is commonly used during intraoperative monitoring and may frequently be the ﬁrst view assessed during hemodynamic instability. Two-dimensional assessment includes volume status, LV systolic function, and regional wall motion. The TG midpapillary SAX view is especially useful because all three coronary arteries that perfuse the different segments of the 26 S. Nhieu Fig. 9 TG midpapillary SAX view. The green arrow indicates the anterior wall of the left ventricle (LV), while the red arrow indicates the inferior wall of the LV.