By Daniel Hole
This is often an research into the grammaticalized process of focus-background contract in Mandarin chinese language. The debris c?i, ji?, dou and ye are, in a particular use style, proven to shape the middle of a hugely systematic paradigm. This booklet isn't just a beneficial better half for somebody drawn to center elements of Mandarin chinese language grammar. It caters for the pursuits of theoretical linguists in addition to for linguists from different fields with an curiosity in information-structure, concentration and contrastive themes, and quantification. the exceptional attribute of this ebook, viz. its easy integration of findings from formal semantics with out heavy formal load, makes it lucrative analyzing either for linguists with a much less formal heritage, and for researchers with a few wisdom of formal semantics.
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Additional resources for Focus and Background Marking in Mandarin Chinese: System and Theory behind cai, jiu, dou and ye (Curzon Asian Linguistics)
A. 5 I will argue that in fact all occurrences of parametric particles are obligatory. The above generalization is not true of the distributive use of dōu (cf. 0). In many cases distributive dōu is necessary to ensure grammaticality (cf. Lin 1996, 1998, Zhang 1997). Admittedly, this makes the argument less striking, but this state of affairs does not constitute counter-evidence: Parametric dōu and distributive dōu are just two elements that have been grammaticalized independently. 1, Sybesma (1996) and Zhang (1997: 261ff) for irrefutable arguments to set apart parametric dōu from distributive dōu.
C. ’ *(cái) CAI măi-guo. buy-ASP women we *(cái) néng CAI can *(cái) CAI qù. go wánr. e. the proposition expressed by the sentence is not true of any kind of book which may not be subsumed under the class zhè-zhŏng shū ‘this kind of book’. (1b) and (1c) have (parts of) TRIGGERS AND CONSTRAINTS 33 adverbials in focus, a locative phrase in (1b), and a conditional clause in (1c). In all of these cases it is ungrammatical not to use cái. Now consider the examples in (2). (2) a. b. c. ’ (cái) CAI măi-guo.
D. e. if willing sacrifice you-ATTR time wŏ yĕ bù néng jiēshòu. ’ (hx:619) xiăng like jiàn. see wŏ. stay-stop I dài-zhe take-ASP săn. umbrella duànliàn. exercise (65a/b) conform to (51a/b) with parametric dōu; in (65c/d) the use of dōu instead of yĕ is dispreferred or impossible if jiùshì and suīrán are used. C. e. with specialized expressions which, in the particular meaning relevant here, only occur in negated and some other contexts. This is illustrated in (66) (cf. (52)). (66) a. ’ HUÀ yĕ speech YE shuōbuchūlai.