By Cassandra R. Veney (auth.)
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Extra info for Forced Migration in Eastern Africa: Democratization, Structural Adjustment, and Refugees
It embarked upon a decade-long attempt to concentrate power in its own hands, and use that power—particularly control of the army and security forces—to control a greater share of national resources” (de Waal 2003/2004). The UNHCR reported that “in modern Somalia, clans are no longer localized or attached to specific territories but are more and more taking the shape of socio-economic and political organizations based on kinship which have led to a proliferation of clan-based militias and no region in the country is controlled by a specific militia to protect civilians” (UNHCR 1994, 5).
The other major groups of refugees in the country consisted of Ethiopians and Sudanese, who represented 18 percent and 6 percent respectively of the total refugee population in 1992. 1 above, Ethiopians constituted the third largest group of refugees in Kenya in the early 1990s. Ethiopia, like many other countries covered in this book, has served as both a refugee-producing and refugee-receiving country. For Kenya, most of the Ethiopian refugees who sought sanctuary within its border from 1990 to 2003 did so initially to escape the fighting that ensued following the overthrow of the government of Mengistu Haile Mariam in 1991.
On the other hand for Tanzania, “from the 1950s, internal conflicts within neighbouring states have periodically forced a considerable number of refugees to seek sanctuary in Tanzania” (Daley 1993, 10). This makes the two countries rather unique in a region dominated by countries that have simultaneously produced and hosted large numbers of refugees. For Kenya and Tanzania, therefore, refugees have tended to be viewed largely as an “external” problem, which has had serious implications in the way that they are received and treated.