By The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
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Extra resources for Hydrogen piping and pipelines : ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31
This description will be helpful in understanding the theoretical and descriptive aspects of adsorption and bin ding phenomena occurring in solid, liquid, and biocolloid systems as discussed subsequently in various other chapters of this book. 2. MEASUREMENT OF BOUNDARY TENSION In Chapter 1 it was pointed out that the boundary between liquid and air or liquid and another immiscible liquid is in astate of tension. Various types of experimental techniques are available for the measurement of the surface tension '}'o for a pure liquid, and accurate mathematical analyses are 21 Z2 CHAPTER 2 available in most cases for the calculation of their exact values.
Alcohol), then it distributes itself in the oil phase in considerable amount, so that may be much greater than Ci. 6. THE GIBBS ADSORPTION EQUATION In his classical paper entitled "Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances," Gibbs 2 used for the derivation of the adsorption equation many thermodynamic notations which are altered at present. The concept involved by this original derivation of Gibbs has been discussed by Adam 18 and more recently by Defay et al. 16 using current familiar symbols of thermodynamics.
The dry weight (ws) of the solid and initial weights (w: and w~) of the two components forming the binary solution must be known. The mixture in the bottle is shaken appropriately at a constant temperature and the period of shaking required for the attainment of the adsorption equilibrium may vary from 24 hr to four days depending upon the system. The solid-liquid system is then centrifuged and the c1ear supernatant is chemically analyzed for weight composition (molality or mole fraction) of one of the components using a very sensitive analytical technique suitable for the particular system.