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Additional info for Second Language Acquisition and the Younger Learner: Child's Play? (Language Learning and Language Teaching, Volume 23)
When they lack the language to say something, young second language learners may recruit words and patterns and use them as if they meant what the children wanted them to mean. In the speech of two 5-year old children acquiring French as a second language, Lightbown (1977a, b) recorded multiple instances of questions that looked like simple copula constructions. However, analysis of the context revealed that the intention was somewhat different. ) was used in a context where its meaning could only be where does this go?
Gerken (2004) provided evidence that there is some ability to do this already established by nine months of age. , Volterra & Taeschner 1978), there is ample evidence that, by age 3, children raised bilingually distinguish not only the languages but also have beliefs about who is expected to speak each language. (1) ATL (3 years, 1 month) and his grandmother are at the park. Although she is bilingual in French and English, she usually speaks only English to ATL and he normally replies only in French (the language he speaks with his mother).
Schneider, B. H. 2000. Friends and Enemies: Peer Relations in Childhood. London: Arnold. Schwartz, B. D. 1998. The second language instinct. Lingua 106: 133–160. Schwartz, B. D. 2004. Why child L2 acquisition? In Proceedings of GALA 2003, J. van Kampen & S. Baauw (eds) Utrecht: LOT. pdf). Skehan, P. 1989. Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. London: Arnold. Slattery, M. & Willis, J. 2001. Teaching English for Primary Teachers. Oxford: OUP. Spada, N. & Lightbown, P. 1993. Instruction and the development of questions in L2 classrooms.