By J. K. Chambers, Natalie Schilling
Reflecting a large number of advancements within the learn of language swap and version during the last ten years, this generally up to date moment version includes a variety of new chapters and continues to be the authoritative reference quantity on a center study sector in linguistics.
• an absolutely revised and extended variation of this acclaimed reference paintings, which has confirmed its attractiveness in keeping with its unrivalled scope and intensity of research during this interdisciplinary field
• comprises seven new chapters, whereas the rest have passed through thorough revision and updating to include the most recent examine and replicate a variety of advancements within the field
• Accessibly established via subject matter, protecting issues together with info assortment and overview, linguistic constitution, language and time, language touch, language domain names, and social differentiation
• Brings jointly an skilled, overseas editorial and contributor workforce to presents an unrivalled studying, instructing and reference software for researchers and scholars in sociolinguistics
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Extra resources for The Handbook of Language Variation and Change (Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics)
1975) Declinatio: A Study of the Linguistic Theory of Marcus Terentius Varro. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Trager, George L. (1972) Language and Languages. San Francisco, CA: Chandler. Trudgill, Peter (1974) The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Weinreich, Uriel, Labov, William, and Herzog, Marvin I. (1968) Empirical foundations for a theory of language change. In Winfred P. ), Directions for Historical Linguistics: A Symposium. 95– 188. Austin TX: University of Texas Press.
It is crucial to remember that both participation and observation are crucial: The researcher must immerse him- or herself in the community as far as possible while at the same time maintaining some measure of outside, “observer” status. One of the best discussions of the rationale for using participant observation as well as one of the most complete descriptions of this method as employed in variationist sociolinguistics is found in Dayton (1996: Chapter 2). Here Dayton relates how she, a white woman, became a member of an African-American working-class community in Philadelphia.
If you are interested in comparing the speech of working-class men and women of the same age, say, 30 years old, then you have subjects in only two cells: 30-year-old women and 30-year-old men. If you expand the study to include men and women of 60 as well, the number of cells doubles to four. If you expand to include both workingclass and middle-class subjects, it doubles again to eight cells. Obviously, each cell must be filled with enough subjects to provide confident generalizations about the social group.